Science and Technology

Current Affairs for Science and Technology Paper: Science and Technology Current Affairs paper by the UPSC Pathfinder of Pioneer Academy for the better and best preparation for UPSC examinations. 1. LEOPARD 2 TANK What exactly is a Leopard 2 tank? How can it benefit Ukraine? What is the reason Germany need to approve the transfer

Current Affairs for Science and Technology Paper: Science and Technology Current Affairs paper by the UPSC Pathfinder of Pioneer Academy for the better and best preparation for UPSC examinations.

Science and Technology
Science and Technology


What exactly is a Leopard 2 tank?

  • Leopard 2 is a Leopard 2 is a 3rd generation main battle tank designed by Krauss-Maffei during the 1970s to support The West German army.
  • The tank first entered operational service on 1979 and replaced the earlier Leopard 1 as the principal battle tank of the West German Army.
  • It’s equipped by a 120mm smoothbore cannon manufactured by Rheinmetall and is powered by a twin-turbo V-12 diesel engine manufactured by MTU Friedrichshafen.
  • It comes with night-vision technology as well as it has a distance finder laser that measures the distance from an object.
  • It is also utilized by additional European forces, Canada and Indonesia.
  • It has served in wars within Afghanistan, Kosovo and Syria.

How can it benefit Ukraine?

  • The Leopard 2’s supply of Leopard 2 would help offset the superiority of Russia’s artillery.

What is the reason Germany need to approve the transfer of leopards owned by other nations?

  • The importation from German tanks without Berlin’s consent is illegal.
  • The contracts a country sign to purchase weapons made by German makers and German military stocks, require the country to obtain a re-export permit through the government of the United States should they decide to export these weapons to another country.
  • The United States has similar requirements and so do many other countries which include Switzerland.
  • Other tanks available for sale to Ukraine comprise:
  • Challenger 2. tanks from Britain
  • Stryker Combat vehicle by USA


Science and Technology
Science and Technology

Pathogens are those that develop resistance to drugs and we have to find newer, more effective drugs against which they do not have any defence.

Antimicrobial peptide (AMP):

  • These are peptides that bind their bodies to those of pathogens to stop it from infiltrating our cells.
  • Peptides are short long chains made of amino acid.
  • AMPs are made by the human body, and well as other living things.
  • Today, approximately 5 000 AMPs are recognized and cataloged.
  • The AMPs are showing to be more sophisticated than pathogens invading the host.
  • These peptides are potent antimicrobials with broad spectrum which establish themselves as novel therapies, and have the possibility of killing gram-negative and positive bacteria, fungi and enclosed viruses, as well as malignant or mutated cells.
  • Contrary to antibiotics AMPs are also effective against viruses.
  • The problem is with the AMPs

The issue is how do you make AMPs?

  • The possibility exists to chemically synthesize AMPs. Another possibility is to use the DNA of organisms and force it into producing Peptides.
  • However, both take time, are costly, and have no guarantee of production.


  • They are viruses that enter the bacteria and lyse — breaking the bacteria open from inside. Bacteriophage therapy is a great option as an alternative to antimicrobials.
  • The optimal conditions for phage usage which includes their concentration, their duration and order of their administration, and their use in conjunction with appropriate antibiotics, will determine the effectiveness and the credibility of this medication.
  • However, it is not an option for the long run because bacteria may evolve resistance to bacteriophages as well.

Addressing AMR: The need to take a more comprehensive approach:

  • Researchers are developing different deeper strategies to discover the solution to the issue of AMR. 

They are working on:

  • Understanding ‘host-pathogen interaction’.
  • Certain pathogens invade the victim (our) cell and disable the immune system through the release of specific proteins. Understanding this process would aid to stop it.
  • Understanding the fundamentals of cell-intrinsic defense and immune dysregulation that drives the pathogenesis.
  • The objective is to find specific and common themes in host defence by using a variety of models of infectious diseases.

‘host-based therapies’

  • It is based on the usage of “interferon signalling pathways’.
  • Interferons are a kind of protein that is released by cells after a virus has entered the cell’s area and are part of the cytokine family.
  • The development of technologies that discern between bacterial and viral illnesses, limiting the unnecessary prescription of antibiotics.
  • Yet another strategy is for proper disposal of antibiotics and antibiotic contaminated material, to prevent environmental contamination and the emergence of AMR.

3. CAESIUM-137

Science and Technology
Science and Technology

The tiny capsule of radioactive material has been missing from a road within Western Australia.

  • The transporter had lost unique piece of cargo on the way it was a tiny capsule that contained an extremely radioactive substance which was utilized in an radiation gauge at mining site.
  • The Western Australian Department of Fire and Emergency Services are currently searching for the ceramic capsule that is missing.


  • The capsule is filled with caesium-137, the radioactive isotope which releases electrons (or beta radiation) as well as high-energy photons (or Gamma radiation).
  • It is blocked by the outer shell of the capsule, however the radiation from the gamma spectrum flows through
  • The source’s activity is of 19 gigabecquerels. This means that it produces around 19 billion high-energy photons every second.
  • Caesium-137 is a dangerous substance however the radiation it generates is also very beneficial.
  • It is employed in certain cancer treatments to measure the thickness of the metal, and the rate of flow of liquids and also to calibrate radiation gauges.
  • Half-life: Caesium-137 has a half-life of about 30 years that means that the amount of radiation produced by the source is expected to decrease by 30 percent every 30 years, and then it ceases to exist completely.


A higher concentration of Omega 3 fatty acids that are found in seafood are linked with a slightly lower risk of developing chronic kidney disease as well as a slow loss of kidney function according to study.

  • They are not associated with greater levels of omega-3 derived from plants. acid fatty acids.

Kidney disease chronic:

  • It affects approximately 700 million people around the world and may cause kidney failure and death therefore it is important to determine the factors that could delay its onset and progress.
  • Omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (n-3 PUFAs) could have positive impacts on renal function however the evidence from human studies is insufficient.

About Omega-3 Fatty Acids

  • Omega-3 fats are nutrients that can be obtained through foods (or supplements) which help to build and keep the health of your body.
  • They’re crucial to the construction of every cell wall that is a part of.
  • They also serve as an energy source that can help maintain the heart and lungs, blood vessels and immune system operating as they should.
  • Two of them that are EPA as well as DHA -are found in specific fish.
  • ALA (alpha-linolenic acid) is another omega-3 fatty acid that can be found in plants, such as seed and nuts.
  • DHA concentrations are particularly significant in retina (eye) as well as brain and the sperm cells.
  • Our bodies require fatty acids for perform and function, but they also provide many health advantages.
  • The sources of omega-3 fat acids.


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